# MLIR

Multi-Level IR Compiler Framework

# 'pdl' Dialect

High level pattern definition dialect PDL presents a high level abstraction for the rewrite pattern infrastructure available in MLIR. This abstraction allows for representing patterns transforming MLIR, as MLIR. This allows for applying all of the benefits that the general MLIR infrastructure provides, to the infrastructure itself. This means that pattern matching can be more easily verified for correctness, targeted by frontends, and optimized.

PDL abstracts over various different aspects of patterns and core MLIR data structures. Patterns are specified via a pdl.pattern operation. These operations contain a region body for the “matcher” code, and terminate with a pdl.rewrite that either dispatches to an external rewriter or contains a region for the rewrite specified via pdl. The types of values in pdl are handle types to MLIR C++ types, with !pdl.attribute, !pdl.operation, !pdl.value, and !pdl.type directly mapping to mlir::Attribute, mlir::Operation*, mlir::Value, and mlir::Type respectively.

An example pattern is shown below:

// pdl.pattern contains metadata similarly to a RewritePattern.
pdl.pattern : benefit(1) {
// External input operand values are specified via pdl.operand operations.
// Result types are constrainted via pdl.type operations.

%resultType = pdl.type
%inputOperand = pdl.operand
%root = pdl.operation "foo.op"(%inputOperand) -> %resultType
pdl.rewrite %root {
pdl.replace %root with (%inputOperand)
}
}


The above pattern simply replaces an operation with its first operand. Note how the input operation is specified structurally, similarly to how it would look in memory. This is a simple example and pdl provides support for many other features such as applying external constraints or external generator methods. These features and more are detailed below.

## Type constraint definition ¶

### PDL handle to an mlir::Attribute¶

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Attribute, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.

### PDL handle to an mlir::Operation *¶

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Operation *, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.

### PDL handle to a range of a given sub-type ¶

This type represents a range of instances of the given PDL element type, i.e. Attribute, Operation, Type, or Value.

### PDL handle to an mlir::Type¶

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Type, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.

### PDL handle for an mlir::Value¶

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Value, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.

## Operation definition ¶

### pdl.apply_native_constraint (::mlir::pdl::ApplyNativeConstraintOp) ¶

Apply a native constraint to a set of provided entities

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.apply_native_constraint $name ($args : type($args) ) attr-dict  pdl.apply_native_constraint operations apply a native C++ constraint, that has been registered externally with the consumer of PDL, to a given set of entities. Example: // Apply myConstraint to the entities defined by input, attr, and op. pdl.apply_native_constraint "myConstraint"(%input, %attr, %op : !pdl.value, !pdl.attribute, !pdl.operation)  Traits: HasParentpdl::PatternOp #### Attributes: ¶ AttributeMLIR TypeDescription name::mlir::StringAttrstring attribute #### Operands: ¶ OperandDescription argspdl type ### pdl.apply_native_rewrite (::mlir::pdl::ApplyNativeRewriteOp) ¶ Apply a native rewrite method inside of pdl.rewrite region Syntax: operation ::= pdl.apply_native_rewrite$name (( $args^ : type($args) ))? (: type($results)^)? attr-dict  pdl.apply_native_rewrite operations apply a native C++ function, that has been registered externally with the consumer of PDL, to perform a rewrite and optionally return a number of values. The native function may accept any number of arguments. This operation is used within a pdl.rewrite region to enable the interleaving of native rewrite methods with other pdl constructs. Example: // Apply a native rewrite method that returns an attribute. %ret = pdl.apply_native_rewrite "myNativeFunc"(%arg0, %attr1) : !pdl.attribute  // The native rewrite as defined in C++: static Attribute myNativeFunc(PatternRewriter &rewriter, Value arg0, Attribute arg1) { // Just return the second arg. return arg1; } void registerNativeRewrite(PDLPatternModule &pdlModule) { pdlModule.registerRewriteFunction("myNativeFunc", myNativeFunc); }  Traits: HasParentpdl::RewriteOp #### Attributes: ¶ AttributeMLIR TypeDescription name::mlir::StringAttrstring attribute #### Operands: ¶ OperandDescription argspdl type #### Results: ¶ ResultDescription resultspdl type ### pdl.attribute (::mlir::pdl::AttributeOp) ¶ Define an input attribute in a pattern Syntax: operation ::= pdl.attribute (:$type^)? (= $value^)? attr-dict-with-keyword  pdl.attribute operations capture named attribute edges into an operation. Instances of this operation define, and partially constrain, attributes of a given operation. A pdl.attribute may partially constrain the input by specifying an expected attribute value type (via a pdl.type operation), or a constant value for the attribute (via val). Only one of these may be set for a given input, as the type of the constant value provides the type. When defined within a pdl.rewrite region, the constant value must be specified. Example: // Define an attribute: %attr = pdl.attribute // Define an attribute with an expected type: %type = pdl.type : i32 %attr = pdl.attribute : %type // Define an attribute with a constant value: %attr = pdl.attribute = "hello"  #### Attributes: ¶ AttributeMLIR TypeDescription value::mlir::Attributeany attribute #### Operands: ¶ OperandDescription typePDL handle to an mlir::Type #### Results: ¶ ResultDescription attrPDL handle to an mlir::Attribute ### pdl.erase (::mlir::pdl::EraseOp) ¶ Mark an input operation as erased Syntax: operation ::= pdl.erase$operation attr-dict


pdl.erase operations are used within pdl.rewrite regions to specify that an input operation should be marked as erased. The semantics of this operation correspond with the eraseOp method on a PatternRewriter.

Example:

pdl.erase %root


Traits: HasParentpdl::RewriteOp

#### Operands: ¶

OperandDescription
operationPDL handle to an mlir::Operation *

### pdl.operand (::mlir::pdl::OperandOp) ¶

Define an external input operand in a pattern

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.operand (: $type^)? attr-dict  pdl.operand operations capture external operand edges into an operation node that originate from operations or block arguments not otherwise specified within the pattern (i.e. via pdl.result or pdl.results). These operations define individual operands of a given operation. A pdl.operand may partially constrain an operand by specifying an expected value type (via a pdl.type operation). Example: // Define an external operand: %operand = pdl.operand // Define an external operand with an expected type: %type = pdl.type : i32 %operand = pdl.operand : %type  Traits: HasParentpdl::PatternOp #### Operands: ¶ OperandDescription typePDL handle to an mlir::Type #### Results: ¶ ResultDescription valPDL handle for an mlir::Value ### pdl.operands (::mlir::pdl::OperandsOp) ¶ Define a range of input operands in a pattern Syntax: operation ::= pdl.operands (:$type^)? attr-dict


pdl.operands operations capture external operand range edges into an operation node that originate from operations or block arguments not otherwise specified within the pattern (i.e. via pdl.result or pdl.results). These operations define groups of input operands into a given operation. A pdl.operands may partially constrain a set of input operands by specifying expected value types (via pdl.types operations).

Example:

// Define a range of input operands:
%operands = pdl.operands

// Define a range of input operands with expected types:
%types = pdl.types : [i32, i64, i32]
%typed_operands = pdl.operands : %types


Traits: HasParentpdl::PatternOp

#### Operands: ¶

OperandDescription
typerange of PDL handle to an mlir::Type values

#### Results: ¶

ResultDescription
valrange of PDL handle for an mlir::Value values

### pdl.operation (::mlir::pdl::OperationOp) ¶

Define an operation within a pattern

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.operation ($name^)? (($operands^ : type($operands) ))? custom<OperationOpAttributes>($attributes, $attributeNames) (-> ($types^ : type($types) ))? attr-dict  pdl.operation operations define operation nodes within a pattern. Within a match sequence, i.e. when directly nested within a pdl.pattern, these operations correspond to input operations, or those that already existing within the MLIR module. Inside of a pdl.rewrite, these operations correspond to operations that should be created as part of the replacement sequence. pdl.operations are composed of a name, and a set of attribute, operand, and result type values, that map to what those that would be on a constructed instance of that operation. The results of a pdl.operation are a handle to the operation itself. Handles to the results of the operation can be extracted via pdl.result. Example: // Define an instance of a foo.op operation. %op = pdl.operation "foo.op"(%arg0, %arg1 : !pdl.value, !pdl.value) {"attrA" = %attr0} -> (%type, %type : !pdl.type, !pdl.type)  When used within a matching context, the name of the operation may be omitted. When used within a rewriting context, i.e. when defined within a pdl.rewrite, all of the result types must be “inferable”. This means that the type must be attributable to either a constant type value or the result type of another entity, such as an attribute, the result of a apply_native_rewrite, or the result type of another operation. If the result type value does not meet any of these criteria, the operation must override the InferTypeOpInterface to ensure that the result types can be inferred. The operands of the operation are interpreted in the following ways: 1. A single !pdl.range: In this case, the single range is treated as all of the operands of the operation. // Define an instance with single range of operands. %op = pdl.operation "func.return"(%allArgs : !pdl.range<value>)  1. A variadic number of either !pdl.value or !pdl.range: In this case, the inputs are expected to correspond with the operand groups defined on the operation in ODS. // Given the following operation definition in ODS: def MyIndirectCallOp { let results = (outs FunctionType:$call, Variadic<AnyType>:$args); }  // We can match the operands as so: %op = pdl.operation "my.indirect_call"(%call, %args : !pdl.value, !pdl.range<value>)  The results of the operation are interpreted in the following ways: 1. A single !pdl.range: In this case, the single range is treated as all of the result types of the operation. // Define an instance with single range of types. %allResultTypes = pdl.types %op = pdl.operation "builtin.unrealized_conversion_cast" -> (%allResultTypes : !pdl.types)  1. A variadic number of either !pdl.type or !pdl.range: In this case, the inputs are expected to correspond with the result groups defined on the operation in ODS. // Given the following operation definition in ODS: def MyOp { let results = (outs SomeType:$result, Variadic<SomeType>:$otherResults); }  // We can match the results as so: %result = pdl.type %otherResults = pdl.types %op = pdl.operation "foo.op" -> (%result, %otherResults : !pdl.type, !pdl.range<type>)  Traits: AttrSizedOperandSegments #### Attributes: ¶ AttributeMLIR TypeDescription name::mlir::StringAttrstring attribute attributeNames::mlir::ArrayAttrstring array attribute #### Operands: ¶ OperandDescription operandssingle element or range of PDL handle for an mlir::Value attributesPDL handle to an mlir::Attribute typessingle element or range of PDL handle to an mlir::Type #### Results: ¶ ResultDescription opPDL handle to an mlir::Operation * ### pdl.pattern (::mlir::pdl::PatternOp) ¶ Define a rewrite pattern Syntax: operation ::= pdl.pattern ($sym_name^)? : benefit ( $benefit ) attr-dict-with-keyword$body


pdl.pattern operations provide a transformable representation for a RewritePattern. The attributes on this operation correspond to the various metadata on a RewritePattern, such as the benefit. The match section of the pattern is specified within the region body, with the rewrite provided by a terminating pdl.rewrite.

Example:

// Provide a pattern matching "foo.op" that replaces the root with its
// operand.
pdl.pattern : benefit(1) {
%resultType = pdl.type
%inputOperand = pdl.operand
%root = pdl.operation "foo.op"(%inputOperand) -> (%resultType)
pdl.rewrite %root {
pdl.replace %root with (%inputOperand)
}
}


Traits: IsolatedFromAbove, SingleBlock

Interfaces: OpAsmOpInterface, Symbol

#### Attributes: ¶

AttributeMLIR TypeDescription
benefit::mlir::IntegerAttr16-bit signless integer attribute whose value is non-negative
sym_name::mlir::StringAttrstring attribute

### pdl.replace (::mlir::pdl::ReplaceOp) ¶

Mark an input operation as replaced

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.replace $operation with (($replValues^ : type($replValues) ))? ($replOperation^)? attr-dict


pdl.replace operations are used within pdl.rewrite regions to specify that an input operation should be marked as replaced. The semantics of this operation correspond with the replaceOp method on a PatternRewriter. The set of replacement values can be either:

• a single Operation (replOperation should be populated)
• The operation will be replaced with the results of this operation.
• a set of Values (replValues should be populated)
• The operation will be replaced with these values.

Example:

// Replace root node with 2 values:
pdl.replace %root with (%val0, %val1 : !pdl.value, !pdl.value)

// Replace root node with a range of values:
pdl.replace %root with (%vals : !pdl.range<value>)

// Replace root with another operation:
pdl.replace %root with %otherOp


Traits: AttrSizedOperandSegments, HasParentpdl::RewriteOp

#### Operands: ¶

OperandDescription
operationPDL handle to an mlir::Operation *
replOperationPDL handle to an mlir::Operation *
replValuessingle element or range of PDL handle for an mlir::Value

### pdl.result (::mlir::pdl::ResultOp) ¶

Extract a result from an operation

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.result $index of$parent attr-dict


pdl.result operations extract result edges from an operation node within a pattern or rewrite region. The provided index is zero-based, and represents the concrete result to extract, i.e. this is not the result index as defined by the ODS definition of the operation.

Example:

// Extract a result:
%operation = pdl.operation ...
%pdl_result = pdl.result 1 of %operation

// Imagine the following IR being matched:
%result_0, %result_1 = foo.op ...

// If the example pattern snippet above were matching against foo.op in
// the IR snippet, %pdl_result would correspond to %result_1.


Interfaces: NoSideEffect (MemoryEffectOpInterface)

Effects: MemoryEffects::Effect{}

#### Attributes: ¶

AttributeMLIR TypeDescription
index::mlir::IntegerAttr32-bit signless integer attribute

#### Operands: ¶

OperandDescription
parentPDL handle to an mlir::Operation *

#### Results: ¶

ResultDescription
valPDL handle for an mlir::Value

### pdl.results (::mlir::pdl::ResultsOp) ¶

Extract a result group from an operation

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.results ($index^)? of$parent custom<ResultsValueType>(ref($index), type($val))
attr-dict


pdl.results operations extract a result group from an operation within a pattern or rewrite region. If an index is provided, this operation extracts a result group as defined by the ODS definition of the operation. In this case the result of this operation may be either a single pdl.value or a pdl.range<value>, depending on the constraint of the result in ODS. If no index is provided, this operation extracts the full result range of the operation.

Example:

// Extract all of the results of an operation:
%operation = pdl.operation ...
%results = pdl.results of %operation

// Extract the results in the first result group of an operation, which is
%operation = pdl.operation ...
%results = pdl.results 0 of %operation -> !pdl.range<value>

// Extract the results in the second result group of an operation, which is
%operation = pdl.operation ...
%results = pdl.results 1 of %operation -> !pdl.value


Interfaces: NoSideEffect (MemoryEffectOpInterface)

Effects: MemoryEffects::Effect{}

#### Attributes: ¶

AttributeMLIR TypeDescription
index::mlir::IntegerAttr32-bit signless integer attribute

#### Operands: ¶

OperandDescription
parentPDL handle to an mlir::Operation *

#### Results: ¶

ResultDescription
valsingle element or range of PDL handle for an mlir::Value

### pdl.rewrite (::mlir::pdl::RewriteOp) ¶

Specify the rewrite of a matched pattern

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.rewrite ($root^)? (with$name^ (( $externalArgs^ : type($externalArgs) ))?)?
($body^)? attr-dict-with-keyword  pdl.rewrite operations terminate the region of a pdl.pattern and specify the main rewrite of a pdl.pattern, on the optional root operation. The rewrite is specified either via a string name (name) to a native rewrite function, or via the region body. The rewrite region, if specified, must contain a single block. If the rewrite is external it functions similarly to pdl.apply_native_rewrite, and takes a set of additional positional values defined within the matcher as arguments. If the rewrite is external, the root operation is passed to the native function as the leading arguments. The root operation, if provided, specifies the starting point in the pattern for the subgraph isomorphism search. Pattern matching will proceed from this node downward (towards the defining operation) or upward (towards the users) until all the operations in the pattern have been matched. If the root is omitted, the pdl_interp lowering will automatically select the best root of the pdl.rewrite among all the operations in the pattern. Example: // Specify an external rewrite function: pdl.rewrite %root with "myExternalRewriter"(%value : !pdl.value) // Specify a rewrite inline using PDL with the given root: pdl.rewrite %root { %op = pdl.operation "foo.op"(%arg0, %arg1) pdl.replace %root with %op } // Specify a rewrite inline using PDL, automatically selecting root: pdl.rewrite { %op1 = pdl.operation "foo.op"(%arg0, %arg1) %op2 = pdl.operation "bar.op"(%arg0, %arg1) pdl.replace %root1 with %op1 pdl.replace %root2 with %op2 }  Traits: AttrSizedOperandSegments, HasParentpdl::PatternOp, NoRegionArguments, NoTerminator, SingleBlock, Terminator Interfaces: OpAsmOpInterface #### Attributes: ¶ AttributeMLIR TypeDescription name::mlir::StringAttrstring attribute #### Operands: ¶ OperandDescription rootPDL handle to an mlir::Operation * externalArgspdl type ### pdl.type (::mlir::pdl::TypeOp) ¶ Define a type handle within a pattern Syntax: operation ::= pdl.type attr-dict (:$type^)?


pdl.type operations capture result type constraints of Attributes, Values, and Operations. Instances of this operation define, and partially constrain, results types of a given entity. A pdl.type may partially constrain the result by specifying a constant Type.

Example:

// Define a type:
%type = pdl.type

// Define a type with a constant value:
%type = pdl.type : i32


#### Attributes: ¶

AttributeMLIR TypeDescription
type::mlir::TypeAttrany type attribute

#### Results: ¶

ResultDescription
resultPDL handle to an mlir::Type

### pdl.types (::mlir::pdl::TypesOp) ¶

Define a range of type handles within a pattern

Syntax:

operation ::= pdl.types attr-dict (: \$types^)?


pdl.types operations capture result type constraints of Values, and Operations. Instances of this operation define results types of a given entity. A pdl.types may partially constrain the results by specifying an array of Types.

Example:

// Define a range of types:
%types = pdl.types

// Define a range of types with a range of constant values:
%types = pdl.types : [i32, i64, i32]


#### Attributes: ¶

AttributeMLIR TypeDescription
types::mlir::ArrayAttrtype array attribute

#### Results: ¶

ResultDescription
resultrange of PDL handle to an mlir::Type values

## Type definition ¶

### AttributeType ¶

PDL handle to an mlir::Attribute

Syntax: !pdl.attribute

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Attribute, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.

### OperationType ¶

PDL handle to an mlir::Operation *

Syntax: !pdl.operation

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Operation *, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.

### RangeType ¶

PDL handle to a range of a given sub-type

This type represents a range of instances of the given PDL element type, i.e. Attribute, Operation, Type, or Value.

#### Parameters: ¶

ParameterC++ typeDescription
elementTypeType

### TypeType ¶

PDL handle to an mlir::Type

Syntax: !pdl.type

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Type, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.

### ValueType ¶

PDL handle for an mlir::Value

Syntax: !pdl.value

This type represents a handle to an instance of an mlir::Value, bound to a value that is usable within a PDL pattern or rewrite.